Beat the Heat from Spicy Peppers

Fury Pepper, 2016
Too much of a good thing? No Worries!

We've all been there... the moment "Bring it on!" turns to "Oh please, make it stop!" Eating spicy foods does at times encourage a sense of bravado, pushing many to see just where their boundaries are (or aren't). What can one do in these trying times? While we've yet to find a magic bullet to address such situations, there are a few things we've found helpful in reducing the time and intensity of this experience – along with a few preventive measures. First, a little background.

What Causes the Burn?

Commonly, credit is given to capsaicin for being the heat-producing compound in a chile pepper. While mostly true, it's more accurate to give the credit more generally to capsaicinoids, a group of 22 known heat-producing proteins found in spicy peppers. Capsaicin is the most common of these proteins, comprising 69% of the capsaicinoids in chile peppers on average.

Capsaicinoids are alkaloid proteins that are responsible for creating the burning, or pungent, sensation caused by spicy peppers. Contact with capsaicinoids triggers heat sensors that are located throughout the body, creating the illusion of heat. Though, illusion or not, the feeling is quite real. The greater the concentration of capsaicinoids present, the more heat perceived.

In dealing with its effects, it's helpful to know that capsaicinoids are mostly insoluble in water. They are, however, soluble in alcohol. Additionally, casein in dairy products helps to break the bonds capsaicin forms on nerve receptors and fatty foods can bind with capsaicin helping to neutralize.

After Eating

It's helpful to know the sensation is temporary and will lessen significantly – usually in 5 to 10 minutes. Albeit, those can be a long 5-10 minutes! Instinctively, many people will reach for water, which not only won't help, but may make things temporarily worse. With capsaicinoids not being water soluble, the water will only work to spread around the capsaicinoid.

A 1990 study by Physiology & Behavior found mouth-rinsing with cold temperatures, around 40°F, works better than warm temperatures as did sugar water (10% sugar concentration) and a cold glass of sweetened milk. They also found alcohol in concentrations of 5% did not help.

Our personal favorite is eating string cheese. Peeling into very fine strings and chewing thoroughly to increase the surface area contact with the mouth, the fatty cheese helps to absorb and disarm the capsaicinoids. We've also found honey to work well.

While beer contains capsaicinoid dissolving alcohol, it's also mostly water and doesn't help much. If you're going to go the alcohol route, swishing a small amount of a chilled, distilled spirit is probably your best bet. At this point, we can't personally vouch for this method, though it is one we plan on testing at some point in the not too distant future.

If you've ingested the offending pepper(s) on an empty stomach, it's quite possible you'll have an uncomfortable stomach-ache a few minutes after the mouth sensation fades. We've found this discomfort can sometimes be worse than the initial pain. Drinking whole milk, and/or eating a small amount of food to absorb the peppers as they digest does help, especially if done before the stomach sensation sets in.

Before Eating

Normally, "before" would proceed "after", though when it comes to spicy foods, it's usually after the exposure when there's the most interest in the topic. That said, now fully aware of the power of the pepper, there are some things that can be done beforehand to have a more enjoyable experience.

During Meal Prep

If you love the taste of chile peppers, but want to tame the heat, meal preparation can have a significant influence on the heat profile. We like to use the term heat profile, because the hot sensation from chile peppers can express itself in different ways, namely the associated time response, intensity and region stimulation.

Time Response
Fury Peppers on Smoker
Fury peppers on smoker to delay heat and bring out sweetness

Sometimes the heat sensation is immediate, noticeable with the first taste. Other times, the heat doesn't express itself as much initially, but then builds over time. Our preference is for a delayed response, which is usually accompanied with a pleasant warming sensation. We've found that smoking the peppers is a great way to back-door the heat with the added bonus of proving a sweet, smoky flavor.

Though, a smoky flavor won't pair well with all dishes. Other options we've found helpful for delaying, dispersing the heat include pairing with dairy, corn starch, avocado or coconut milk.

Why do those items produce a delayed reaction? We're not sure. Though, it's interesting that all those items also help to dissolve/neutralize capsaicinoids. With 22 known capsaicinoid compounds, one wild guess is that different types of capsaicinoid proteins may express themselves in different ways and such additives may suppress the affects of some, while allowing others to be perceived more fully. Or perhaps, the protection these substances offer is more effective in the mouth than they are within the digestive system.

Intensity

This is usually the first thing that comes to mind with spicy food, the overall hotness. It can range from an uncomfortable, intense burning to a low, slow burn that produces little discomfort paired with a general warming sensation.

As far as intensity goes, it's simply a matter of what you (and your guests) prefer. The items used above to delay the heat are also good at lowering the intensity. Though, even delayed, the intensity can build to intolerable levels. The amount and type of peppers used are the big determiner. Additionally, there are a few other ways to manage the heat...

  1. Remove the seeds and inner pith. The white pith that attaches the seeds to the pepper is where most of a pepper's heat is concentrated. Removing it will significantly reduce heat. When doing this, be sure to wear gloves! If they're not disposable, it's a good idea to wash the gloves off with some vegetable oil before removing. If you're working with a very hot variety it's also a good idea open windows. When washing away seeds and pulp in a sink, the capsaicinoids do go airborne and can make breathing incredibly uncomfortable.
  2. Cook or grill the peppers. This study showed that capsaicin breaks down around 400°F. Another study confirmed that heat, especially at higher temperatures, while under acidic conditions (lemon/lime juice, with tomatoes, etc.) reduced capsaicinoid concentrations.
  3. Jars of Pepper Powder
    Powder made using dehydrated peppers and a coffee grinder
  4. Individualize the Heat. What one person considers "just right", may be too hot or not hot enough for others. We'll usually make our spicy dishes to accommodate the those with a lower heat tolerance, while providing pepper powder for those who'd like to kick it up a notch. We prefer the powder to hot sauces as it tends to accentuate a meals flavor without changing it too much (unless it's a smoked variety) and it doesn't need to be refrigerated, making it very portable.
Region Stimulation

Different peppers seem to affect different regions of the mouth – the tip of the tongue, the middle region, or the back. Regional affect is a new perspective for us and we don't currently have a variety related breakdown. This is a topic we're looking to pay more attention to going forward. As such, we're not sure how this, or if this, influences the perception of heat or flavor.

Pre-Eating

As mentioned earlier, capsaicinoids can also have an uncomfortable affect on the stomach – especially when peppers are eaten by themselves on an empty stomach. If you're planning on eating/sampling chile peppers on their own, it's a good idea to have something to eat beforehand.

Skin Exposure

Peppers can be just as uncomfortable when they, or their oil, comes in contact with the skin. When cutting or de-seeding peppers, it's good practice to wear gloves. This is especially true when de-seeding as the amount of contact involved can cause the burning sensation to last for over a day. It's also a good practice to wash off the gloves with either soap and water or vegetable oil before removing them. Or, using disposable food prep gloves that can simply be thrown-away or recycled.

If you're doing some light cutting and decide to go glove-less, it's still a good idea wash your hands immediately afterward. Most people won't detect mild capsaicinoid exposure on their fingers. However, they'll become quickly aware of such exposure when their hands touch other, more sensitive, parts of the body. Be especially careful of this if removing or putting-in contact lenses later on; we've ruined a few pairs of contact lenses due to forgetting this.

If skin exposure is causing discomfort, washing with vegetable oil can help to lessen the irritation.

Adaptation to the Heat

What doesn't kill you, makes you stronger is also a truism when it comes to adapting to capsaicinoids. Repeated, consistent exposure does help to increase one's tolerance to its effects. In addition to making you more heat tolerant (and impressing your friends), frequent chile pepper consumption (done responsibly) is also believed to be good for you!

Additional Resources